CAD Canadian Dollar

This composition was maintained for the 10¢, 25¢ and 50¢ piece through 1966, but the debasement of the 5¢ piece continued in 1922 with the silver 5¢ being entirely replaced by a larger nickel coin. In 1942, as a wartime measure, nickel was replaced by tombac in the 5¢ coin, which was changed in shape from round to dodecagonal. Chromium-plated steel was used for the 5¢ in 1944 and 1945 and between 1951 and 1954, after which nickel was readopted. In 1858, bronze 1¢ and 0.925 silver 5¢, 10¢ and 20¢ coins were issued by the Province of Canada.

It is also known as a commodity currency, due to the country’s substantial raw material exports. The Canadian dollar is among the top-10 most widely traded currencies in the foreign exchange markets. Thanks to Canada’s burgeoning exports of energy and commodities, the loonie was among the best-performing currencies against the U.S. dollar (USD) in the first decade of the new millennium. The government can change the value of the Canadian dollar over short periods by buying or selling Canadian dollars in the market, a process known as foreign exchange intervention. In this case, the government modifies Canadian interest rates, changing the attractiveness of investing in Canada (see Foreign Investment). This, in turn, affects the demand for, and ultimately the value of, the Canadian dollar.

  1. Decimalization aligned currency in the Province of Canada with the US dollar, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and British Columbia also adopted decimal-based currencies in the 1860s.
  2. The Canadian dollar is among the most traded currencies on the foreign exchange market, along with the United States dollar (USD), the euro (EUR), Japanese yen (JPY), Great British pound (GBP) and Swiss franc (CHF).
  3. Trading is mostly carried out by chartered banks and large corporations in Toronto, Montréal, and New York.
  4. When Canadian prices rise (inflation) faster than foreign prices, the dollar’s value falls relative to foreign currencies.

This increase was mainly due to the strength of the Chinese government’s infrastructure-focused stimulus efforts, which saw increased demand for Canada’s natural resources. Demand from Chinese firms for raw materials and oil, both of which Canada exports in abundance, propped up the Canadian economy and the value of the Canadian dollar. Loonie is a colloquial term for the Canadian dollar (CAD), the official currency of Canada, that originated in the forex dealer community and has subsequently gained popularity with foreign exchange (FX) traders.

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Canadian English, similar to American English, used the slang term “buck” for a former paper dollar. When the two-dollar coin was introduced in 1996, the derivative word toonie (“two loonies”) became the common word for it in Canadian English slang. CAD acts as the fifth most-held reserve currency in the world after the US dollar (USD), the euro (EUR), British pound sterling (GBP) and the Japanese yen (JPY). The Canadian dollar, ranking as the sixth most traded currency globally, is also known as a commodity currency, due to Canada’s rich natural resources and significant raw material exports. The BOC released a new series of banknotes in an effort to fight counterfeiting and stopped printing paper currency. The Frontier Series—the seventh series for Canada—is made entirely out of polymer, a plastic substance that gives the currency added security features.

What is the Loonie?

In 1871, Canada’s federal government passed the Uniform Currency Act, which replaced the various currencies of the provinces with the one national Canadian dollar. Throughout the country’s history, the Canadian dollar has moved back and forth between being pegged to the U.S. dollar and being allowed to float freely. The Canadian dollar was first allowed to float in 1950; the currency was pegged again from 1962 to 1970 and has since been allowed to float.

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Many currencies were exchanged in what is now Canada before the centralization of the Canadian dollar. In 1858, the decimal-based dollar replaced the Canadian pound, which was divided into shillings and pence. Decimalization aligned currency in the Province of Canada with the US dollar, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and British Columbia also adopted decimal-based currencies in the 1860s.

Significant design changes to the notes have occurred since 1935, with new series introduced in 1937, 1954, 1970, 1986, and 2001. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U.S. dollar unit and introduced coins in the denomination of 1 cent. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the how to write an effective software development rfp Dominion of Canada in 1873. Canada stopped producing $1 bills in 1989, two years after it introduced the “loonie,” which features a common loon on the front. Similarly, the mint ceased production of the $2 bill in 1996 with the release of the “toonie,” the country’s $2 coin. The Bank of Canada (BOC), located in Ottawa, Ontario, acts as the nation’s central bank and manages the currency.


The Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871,[10] tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U.S. dollar unit. Canada is the world’s tenth largest economy (2021) and has an independent monetary policy.

As the majority of Canada’s international trade is with the US — especially Canadian crude oil exports — the value of the Canadian dollar often correlates to the strength of the US economy and dollar. CAD is the official currency of Canada and is considered to be a benchmark currency, meaning that many central banks across the globe keep Canadian dollars as a reserve currency. The Canadian dollar has been in use since 1858 when the Province of Canada replaced the Canadian pound with its first official Canadian coins. The Canadian dollar was pegged to the U.S. dollar at par using the gold standard system of one dollar equaling 23.22 grins of gold.

The Canadian dollar (CAD) has fluctuated between fixed and flexible exchange rates throughout its history. It was pegged to the US dollar (USD), meaning that CAD’s value rose and fell at the same rate as USD, between 1858 and 1938 and again between 1962 and 1970. Since then the Canadian dollar has fluctuated from as high as US$1.08 in 2007 to as low as US$0.62 in 2002. Since 76.7% of Canada’s exports go to the U.S., and 53.3% of imports into Canada come from the U.S.,[32] Canadians are interested in the value of their currency mainly against the U.S. dollar. Although domestic concerns arise when the dollar trades much lower than its U.S. counterpart, there is also concern among exporters when the dollar appreciates quickly.

Except for 1¢ coins struck in 1859, no more coins were issued until 1870, when production of the 5¢ and 10¢ was resumed and silver 25¢ and 50¢ were introduced. Between 1908 and 1919, sovereigns (legal tender in Canada for $4.86+2⁄3) were struck in Ottawa with a “C” mintmark. Importance of the Canadian DollarThe Canadian Dollar is the seventh-most traded currency on the Forex market, as many institutions and individuals trade the CAD. People also refer to the CAD as the Loonie, buck, Huard, and Piastre (in French).

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